Summary of Research (accumulated at the time of journal submission): n=128

Intervention: Steps to Economic and Personal Success® (STEPS®) produced by The Pacific Institute® LLC (Seattle, WA)

Criminogenic Thinking Scales (CTS) showed statistically significant decreases:

  • Entitlement (-6.23%)
  • Justification (-20.57%)
  • Personal Irresponsibility (-13.27%)
  • Power Orientation (-16.24%)
  • Cold Heartedness (-9.07%)
  • Criminal Rationalization (-12.92%)

Additional Research Findings (n=128)

State Hope Scale (SHS) showed statistically significant increases:

  • Agency (+17.5%)
  • Pathways (+14%)

Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale showed a statistically significant increase:

  • Esteem (+14.5%)

Consideration of Future Consequences showed a statistically significant increase:

  • CFC (+15.5%)

Of the 128 adult males studied, 102 had been incarcerated for at least one (1) year prior to the STEPS intervention and remained incarcerated at least one (1) year post STEPS® intervention. Infraction (an offense occurring while incarcerated) data showed that 80% of these subjects had been infraction free for a minimum of one year since participation in the intervention. These individuals are considered to have achieved desistance (arriving at a state of permanent non-offending behavior).