Nick said, "Bob, we had never offered a person a job with our company before we did a complete and comprehensive background, criminal, drug, and credit check on the candidate. We have a minimal amount of turnover with our firm because we treat the people with the respect that they deserve. We pay every employee a fair salary, at or even above the market for their position. We bonus everyone in the company from the company's profits. My partner and I believe that the way we make money with our business is to hire the best people in the area, treat them with respect, give them the tools to do their job, provide them an excellent environment to work in and compensate them fairly.
Hello TPI friends and family! As 2017 winds down, I hope you take the time to reflect on the past year and discover you have a lot to be thankful for and, at the same time, find some renewed vigor to put some affirmations together for 2018.
Thousands of children live in poverty and grow up in adverse conditions, some much less fortunate than others. Yet there are those who manage to rise above social-economical barriers. What makes those who do so different?
Culture is to organizations the way personality is to people. Culture and personality are “interior” domains. You often can’t see a culture or personality, but it doesn’t take you long to sense their presence – or your willingness to be in and around them. When we speak of culture, we are referring to the habits, attitudes, beliefs, and expectations that are the unwritten code for the behavior in an organization. It is the shared values or behavioral norm. It can be intense, and one of its purposes is to perpetuate itself.
About three years ago, as a result of the previous work by Donald V. Taylor (vice president of business development for Daymar College) and through the assistance of Greg Gabis (Daymar College), a pilot program was initiated in the Southwest Region of the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Corrections (ODRC)
In 2013, the Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act, or Campus SaVE Act (SaVE) was signed into law as an amendment to the federal Jeanne Clery Act. Championed by a bi-partisan effort, SaVE was designed as a companion to Title IX, with the goal that it would help improve response and prevention of sexual violence in higher education.
The nature of student engagement in higher education is evolving at a heady pace. It seems likely that several trends, occurring in and out of the classroom, will continue to accelerate...
Needing to do some grocery shopping last week, I made my way to the local store. I went about my typical routine, walked in and grabbed the closest shopping cart. As I entered the store, I experienced what most of us have experienced at some point – that stubborn cart with the broken wheel. No matter how hard you try, it seems to have a mind all its own. After a few frustrating minutes, I suddenly became aware of my self-talk. There I was in the middle of a grocery store, allowing an inanimate object to hijack my emotional state. It was in that brief, illuminating moment that it hit me: this shopping cart is on to something.
Early in my career, I was recruited to be the Corporate Controller for a large public company in Philadelphia. Two weeks after I started my job, the company also hired a new President. In my first meeting with the President, he shared a story with me that I still remember today. In my mind, it’s like it was told to me yesterday. I have shared the same story many times with clients because I think the message is valuable to everyone.
Laughing can actually help your life!A thirty second BELLY LAUGH can give us up to three months of physical immunity. So, if you have four good ones, you’re set for the year!
One of the greatest frustrations an admissions professional experiences is a prospective student not answering the phone after inquiring. It's certainly reasonable to be frustrated - after all, if a prospective student is asking for someone to contact them with information, why wouldn't they pick up the phone? The Legacy Team has spent over a year researching a variety of contact protocol combinations to help admissions professionals connect with more prospects that inquire. Our research has discovered a combination which has helped many of our education partners connect with up to 40% more inquiries. We're thrilled to share those results with you.
I know each one of you reading this are excellent FACILITATORS or you would not have been chosen to do so. Because of that, when asked to write about the art of FACILITATION, a warm sensation came over me. I wasn’t too sure if I had what it took to write this and the question arose, "Who was I to provide such advice?" Then, I remembered all the feedback from both students and faculty that I have had the privilege to develop over the years and I said "yes!"
Look in the mirror. You are the one to blame for the problems! In most every turnaround engagement of a business, where I have been hired to solve the problems to make the company profitable again, the largest problem is a weak executive or executives on the management team. At the beginning of each engagement, my first task is always to interview each member of the management team to determine if he or she is qualified to do their respective job. When I was finished with the interviews, it usually is obvious which manager(s) are in over their head in their position, or do not have the skills or ability to do their job successfully.
Who are the Millennials? Millennials also known as Gen Y, Gen Next, the Me Generation and Digital natives, currently comprise some 80 million within the US population.
Not every job is created equal. No matter who you are, there are a lot of careers that just aren't a good fit, and at least one that is nearly perfect. But few of us are lucky enough to have that job fall right in our laps -- instead there are a few steps we need to take. And these are some of the most important:
It is a difficult task for any company, especially small to mid-market companies, to attract and hire top tier employees. How does a company attract this type of candidate to their organization? I suggest the following steps be followed.
An article published earlier this year by Education Week (edweek.org) and written by Ross Brenneman, centers around a Gallup poll of close to a million U.S. students and how engaged those students were with their education. Of course, reading this article sparked my attention and made me think of Chava. Chava is an engagement app that started as an in-house project for our team to engage and connect offsite coworkers with the home office. Over time, it turned into a commercially available Platform as a Service product.
In the past several years, career colleges and schools have found themselves under increased scrutiny. As the government continues to encourage and enforce campus safety around the issue of sexual violence, compliance is essential.
As a manager, you may be faced with certain employees who positively contribute in many ways, but are still difficult to work with. This is can lead to one of the more frustrating aspects of the job, where you want to keep someone on the team, but can't quite figure out how to tweak some of their habits. Here are five common employee archetypes you may run into and how best to change their way of thinking.
Growing up, many of us were predisposed to the type of education we would experience through cultural, familial, and socio-economic backgrounds. While never a final deciding factor, it is more common than not that students live what they have experienced. Some students have the ability and desire to break the cycle of lack of education or under-education on their own, others are unable to do so and need help.
There has been an abundance of news media and social media reports lately on sexual assaults in our schools and colleges in America. Very little has been reported on the highest risk factors: the location of these assaults. An earlier study in 2000 reported that 66.3% were committed off campus and 33.7% on campus. (Student Risk of Victimization by Christenson, Danelle)
Employee Engagement has become a large focus for companies striving to keep turnover low, productivity high and attract a more robust, talented staff. But studies have shown that this is not an easy thing to accomplish -- people are complex and not everything works for everyone. But with that said, there are some tactics that seem to be more effective than others. See if any of the following tips change things for the better...
We have been reading much about the term “mindset” and how it can impact our thinking. So just what is mindset and how does it affect our circumstances, experiences, decisions and overall well-being?
Who are the Millennials? Millennials also known as Gen Y, Gen Next, the Me Generation and Digital natives, currently comprise some 80 million within the US population. Of that 80 million, 55.2 million are currently in the workforce and they are slated to be 75% of the workforce by 2020...
Moving into a managerial position can be very exciting and challenging. It can also be terrifying. Finding yourself in charge of a team, possibly with coworkers you've known for a long time, can keep you up at night, wondering how you can keep friendships but increase efficiency. So here are five things to aim for when taking on your new role:
As we all know, change is a way of life. Helping individuals, teams and organizations see the opportunities in, and grow, when facing change is what The Pacific Institute's work is all about. It's been a little over four years since the passing of our co-founder Lou Tice, and nearly a year and a half since Diane Tice forwarded the legacy of the Institute to a new group of internal owners. It's been a time of taking stock of what we have, reassessing many aspects of the business, and planning what needs to be done to ensure we continue to grow and deliver the most relevant and impactful work to our clients.
In a recent Educational Benchmark Study, Wonderlic, Inc. and the Imagine America Foundation (IAF) joined forces to identify factors that influence student engagement. More than 4,000 students nationwide participated in the study which focused on the impact of student and school characteristics on student success.
There are some places where it seems that being creative is frowned upon. Unfortunately for many people, one of those places is at their job. While working hard always seems to be a necessity, thinking creatively is often not a high priority around the office. But promoting creativity in your company can be incredibly valuable. Here are some of the biggest benefits:
In this very brief overview of Patrick Lencioni’s book, the Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni describes five dysfunctions that can plague any team’s success. Each of these dysfunctions builds upon one another. (Condensed from pages 188-190 of Five Dysfunctions of a Team.)
Managing a team can sometimes be a frustrating experience. When dealing with a diverse group of people, with varying talents and personalities, you may occasionally feel like you're spinning your wheels trying to engage and inspire them. Sometimes, you get so wrapped up in focusing on other people you forget how important it is to lead by example. Here are five ways to inspire yourself and those around you:
“What will it look like when it’s fixed?” Anyone who came to The Pacific Institute’s co-founder, Lou Tice, with a problem got this for Lou’s first response. Wanting to dig down deep into the guts of the situation and wallow in either the pain or the misery, each petitioner for Lou’s time mostly felt frustrated by this response. He wasn’t being contrary. Typically, Lou felt that the person in front of him was dodging accountability and just needed to be guided back to self-discovery of a solution.
Declining college completion rates and accountability for student learning tell us we need to further understand the largely unspoken factors of the human experience as it relates to students persisting and retaining in their college degree programs.
As another year passes, since the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act (VAWA)/Campus SaVE Act, institutions of higher education across the country continue to grapple with meeting significant requirements specified by VAWA. New reporting, policy and training requirements have been met with challenge as many colleges continue to search for resources and try to meet the task of creating the infrastructure to assist in compliance.
One of the biggest fears when pursuing higher education is that your family will take a backseat to your school. Whether your family has been there all your life, or this is a new experience, it can be hard to strike that balance between finding quality time with them and keeping up with your studies. But it can be done. Just keep these three things in mind:
Angela Duckworth and Martin Seligman in a University of Pennsylvania study concluded...
Most small senior executives tend to work in their business and never take the time to work on their business. They have great knowledge of their area of expertise, but usually have very little knowledge in the other areas of business.
What is the difference between a pleasantly active life and one that is compulsively busy? Sometimes, it is a heart attack.
Setting the stage for optimal performance requires a strong leader with a clear vision. Simply stated, the leader’s role is to create the capacity in human resources and capital to bring the vision to reality.
You’re proud of your team. You want them to feel that they are appreciated. But as leaders some of us just don’t know how to really let them know that. In fact, it can be rather hard to praise someone at the best time and also make it feel genuine. Here are four ways to do it right...
Yes, it is the beginning of 2016, and it is time to develop your personal and professional goals. Unfortunately, if you are like 97% of those that do set goals, they are developed with great intent and expectations, then filed away and never thought about again until January 2017.
Lots of students need a second chance. Lots of students need a do-over. Unfortunately, many of those students who are given a second chance squander the opportunity, not because they aren’t capable of completing their education, but because they don’t possess the mindset to re-write the negative experiences that have lead to failures with education in the past. Consequently, those experiences keep negatively affecting their decisions to “stop out or drop out” of school.
Did you know that employees who are well matched to their jobs are 2.5 times MORE PRODUCTIVE on the job?Studies show that proper “job fit” (the alignment of a person’s strengths, needs and wants with the specific position and work environment) improves engagement and job satisfaction, resulting in increased productivity while simultaneously reducing negative factors like job-related stress, tension, workplace conflict and costly employee turnover.
You already have the knowledge to make your goals a reality. You simply may not know how to use it.
We all struggle. We all get down on ourselves. And none of us want to feel like our heads are getting too big to carry around. We are our harshest critics and often see flaws where no one else would even think to look. However, to be successful, you want to celebrate your success, no matter how small you may think it is. EVEN SMALL WINS EQUAL BIG RESULTS! Here are five ways to do that and why they matter so much:
1997 was a transition in my life from a small career school to a large school corporation with 62 colleges. I had just been hired as the Chief Academic Officer for technical colleges in over 30 states...
In September of 2014, a good friend called to ask for my advice on a job offer. He had been chosen by a large university to assist them with meeting compliance under the VAWA (Violence Against Women Act). This was, in part, due to an alcohol and drug intervention program he had created years ago that was still having great results. The university hoped he would be able to create something similar for sexual assault on campus. We began to speak about the devastating impact of sexual assault on students, and it seemed to me like intervention was just too late, as the damage that sometimes could be prevented had already been done. I suggested that if he were to take this position, he should attempt to implement a program of prevention that protects all parties involved (potential victims/survivors, would-be perpetrators, and the colleges).
Can you tell me, in ten words or less . . . . What is your philosophy on how you live your life? My philosophy: Live today, to be the very best I can be.
We have our self-image, which is our idea of how we are. That image controls our performance reality or how we behave when we are not consciously trying to control our actions or reactions. Our subconscious then takes over. Our auto-programming responds to situations that are familiar or similar to other situations in the past in an automatic, subconscious way. This is why we “feel” powerless to change it. But what if those past experiences are holding us back in our present situation?
This article is the third in the series focusing on Intelligent Heart as the key to cultural transformation. The first article explored the substantial positive impact of The Pacific Institute’sThought Patterns for a Successful Career®on the success of career-college students experiencing the Institute’s principles as part of their first-in course.
Great schools all look to improve their student’s lives through an education that is meaningful. Over the years, individuals and companies have focused on the singular approach towards retention and success...
It's a simple enough question: In a market that is searching for the very best employees, how does your company become the one to lure them in? It can be a daunting task, but you'll find it much easier if you follow these step...
During his tenure as Everest College Phoenix Provost, Thomas Waite and the academic leadership team were bowled over by the power of The Pacific Institute®’s Intelligent Heart principles to impact student outcomes. The results were impressive, as indicated by a comparison of student outcomes during the pre-development year compared to the year after the Strategies for Success course was launched:
We have all assimilated HABEs - Habits, Attitudes, Beliefs, and what it is that we have come to Expect, from the world around us, throughout our lifetime. Our HABEs are automatic, subconscious and repeated. Our Habits, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Expectations are what is “normal” for us in all areas of our lives. A great majority of our HABEs were established at a very young age, some through adolescence, but establishing new ones greatly slows through adulthood - not because we aren’t capable of creating or changing HABEs, we just need to be more deliberate with our intentions or our brain will just play the HABEs that are already there.
Ask yourself these questions: What does my organization look like if I’m not there? Are there group magnetics where your eco-system functions as a cohesive unit? We know that inspiring your team is a necessary way to retain employees and keep them working at the highest level possible. But it's also important to foster a supportive environment where your co-workers want to inspire each other. Here are four ways to start:
When Thomas Waite joined Everest College Phoenix (ECP) as Provost in 2013, he spent the first one hundred days launching a strategy that would prove to be groundbreaking: the Comprehensive Retention Initiative (CRI). Student retention is high on every college’s priority list and, while there isn’t a magic bullet, the Provost’s action plan aimed with laser focus at the key driver of retention: the student experience. The first phase of CRI was designed to address the retention sweet spot: the first 30/60/90 days of class time during which student drops occurred at the highest rates for Everest College Phoenix.
We hear much about the impact of culture in organizations. We have likely had experiences working in environments that exhibit a positive culture, and also may have had less fortunate experiences in not-so-positive ones. Both types of organizations share one thing – a consistent way of being that is ever-present.
How often do you bring on a new employee, only to have them resign a month later? Do you invest your time interviewing a range of candidates, conducting new hire orientations, and then the new team member doesn’t perform up to standard? Do you have current employees showing the newest company hire “the way things are really done around here”?
The other day we wrote a blog about a recent Facebook advertising test we ran. When we looked at the results, we were displeased with the discrepancy between our Facebook reporting and Google Analytics. We always expect some discrepancy but things are a bit fishy when Facebook over-reports by more than 50% compared to Google Analytics. Since we know this is a problem that plagues anyone with Google Analytics, we thought we’d share some of the top reasons discrepancies exist so you can have a resource to turn to when comparing third-party reporting data and Google Analytics.
Make A Profit Every Day has been written to challenge your thinking, in an entirely different way. The book’s ten core Principles focus on a distinctive approach to your personal and/or business finances. Along the way, you will find that these Principles create for you a new definition for the word “Profit.”
[Seattle, WA] The Pacific Institute has just confirmed the release date of its newest program, Thought Patterns for a Successful Career® / Mastering the Attitude of Success™ (TPSC/MAS) to be March 31, 2015. Preview audiences have given the program “two thumbs up”.
Finding a reliable team is a difficult task that requires good intuition, some risk and a little luck. But when you finally have people you can count on, you may be faced with the problem of holding onto them for the long haul. Keep these six words in your head when it comes to your staff...
With appointment conversions low amongst school groups today, it’s causing many to ask the million-dollar question, “Why are prospective students not attending their admissions appointments?” I can assure you the issue of inquiry quality is not to blame for a poor show rate. I’m not only going to illustrate why an outdated phone guide (script) and approach might be the reason your team is not yielding the desired results, but I’ll share a template which has helped many of our partner schools improve this key metric.
Nearly 70% of employees say they feel disengaged from their company’s mission, according to recent surveys by the Gallup Group. Why? Haven’t we spent enough on employee programs and training? Don’t they understand where we are going? Why the lack of commitment? Well, further research indicates a very strong correlation between the degree of employee’s commitment/engagement and how strongly their personal values match the values espoused by their employer.
As the co-founder of The Pacific Institute and mentor to both Joe Pace and myself, Lou Tice challenged us and those around him to answer a simple question before beginning: “So what, who cares and what difference does it make?”...
The pace of business moves faster and faster, and you ask your staff to do more with less. At the same time, new skills are required for your team to work effectively together and in the changing business landscape.
We all know that social media is incredibly important, but it can also be a drain on resources if you’re not careful...
“Managers are responsible for the system.” — W. Edwards DemingWhat strategies will best close the gap between the way it presently is and your desired future? Through team brainstorming, new, innovative ways of creating desired futures can be developed. The process requires you to get out all the ideas and then weed through them, leaving only the most essential.
I was once told by a mentor that if I wanted better answers I should learn to ask better questions. In both our personal and professional lives, the questions we ask are the keys to being innovative and transformative. Different questions cause us to shift our perspectives and think in new and different ways. So here is one idea to remember when trying to get your life or business unstuck.
In 2013, Everest College Phoenix embarked upon a journey that would ultimately result in “Intelligent Heart” being woven into the fabric of the institution. When Stu Vanorny joined the team at ECP, he brought academic and instructional design chops as well as remarkable experience with The Pacific Institute.
Success does not happen by accident. Success comes from thinking and picturing what you want (end-results) and then executing effective plans to get there. Who is responsible for this? You and all of the employees are; all of you must decide, plan and act…you need to invent your future.
In today's ever changing climate,Innovation has become a new buzzword. Many companies claim to want innovation, but few have created a culture that supports it. In fact, most organizations have fostered a culture that values following the status quo rather than taking risk and challenging the norm. The Ken Blanchard Companies found that around 70% of all initiatives focused on change that companies try to implement actually fail.
It’s that wonderful time of year when strings of yellow buses line our neighborhoods, we come together for Friday night lights and welcome Homecoming celebrations. For career colleges, it’s also the time of year to either remain dedicated to their high school efforts or abandon them entirely.
Many discussions, meetings, planning sessions and research projects have been conducted at colleges and universities regarding retention. For the hundreds of small, private colleges and universities that enroll large numbers of “at-risk” students, proactive retention activities are extremely important. Retention is a topic, however, that is much discussed but rarely really addressed.
I needed to do some grocery shopping last week, and made the routine trip to the local grocery store. I went about my typical routine, walked in and grabbed the closest shopping cart. As I departed the store entry, I experienced what most of us have experienced at some point, that stubborn cart with the broken wheel that wants to go in its own direction, no matter how hard you try to steer it where you want to go. After a few minutes of frustration, I had a self-reflection moment where I suddenly became aware of my self-talk. Here I was in the middle of a grocery store, allowing this intimate object to hijack my emotional state. It was in that reflective moment that it hit me... This shopping cart is on to something. I should be more like IT.
Social media can be overwhelming and confusing. If you feel like you're not exactly sure WHY you're doing it, or WHO you're doing it for, you're definitely not alone. Here are 10 ways to make better use of social media so you feel more in control.
As the CEO of a worldwide organization once said to his team of over 5,000 people, "Character isn't part of the game, it IS the game." Progressive, cutting edge organizations (teams) believe now more than ever, that drilling character into the DNA of their team is non-negotiable. My name is Greg Roeszler (Coach Roz), and I am the Executive Director of an organization that instills character into at-risk and fatherless boys (www.theplaymakers.org). As I coach corporate America (for-profit schools) about character in their organizations by using sports as the vehicle, more CEO's are being moved in their daily teachings (E.D.D's) of...
Goal setting interventions in education have been shown to be an effective method of enhancing student performance. This is because goals direct a student's attention toward the goal, increase effort and persistence, and motivate a student to find strategies to attain the goal.There are four boundary conditions that influence the effectiveness of setting a specific, high goal. The first is Goal Commitment. Goals are only effective if the individual is committed to attaining the goal. The second boundary condition is Feedback. Feedback on goal progress enables students to track whether they are making progress in attaining the goal. A third boundary condition is the requisite Skill and Knowledge to attain the goal. If students lack ability, a specific, high goal for grade-point average may decrease academic performance, as students become so focused on reaching the goal that they do not take the time to focus on learning ways to attain the goal. The fourth is Resources. Finally, students must have...
Emotion is a critical part of the learning process, but educators often underestimate its importance. There's a tendency to think of emotion or caring as this touchy-feely stuff that has nothing to do with learning. However, there is a cognitive side to emotion.The human brain goes through an electrical chemical process or synapse when emotion is connected with a learning event, and you can actually see these synapses with a CAT scan. Once people understand that there is a cognitive side to teaching with emotion they begin to see that there is something to it.I've taken this idea of cognitive science to many colleges and schools in the past 21 years. When I first started telling people about the intelligent heart they probably thought
The focus on higher education quality, outcomes, value, affordability and access dominates the headlines these days. Enough data has been thrown around to prove or disprove any position and yet the answer is obvious to those not directly embroiled in the battle. Let us look at the facts that all sides can most likely agree upon. The United States ranks behind other countries in terms of
During the 2012-2013 programming year, Carlton Trail College implemented delivery of The Pacific Institute's curriculum to every student attending a full time post-secondary program. For the most part, the program that was delivered was the PX2®, a two day, "you focused" curriculum. In our Practical Nursing Diploma we utilized ThoughtPatterns for a Successful Career®, a four day, post-secondary student-focused curriculum. This curriculum was utilized with the intent to develop decision-making, goal-setting and personal empowerment as a foundation for ongoing student success.With a curriculum based on the tenets of cognitive psychology and social learning theory, The Pacific Institute bridges...
Deep down in our hearts, is human nature more good or evil? Both sides yield strong arguments.Here is the evidence:Evil situations. Social psychology experiments have randomly assigned people to "evil" situations or to a control condition. Typically, the evil settings result in people behaving in nasty ways towards others. Selfish genes. Not only do evil settings tend to corrupt people, there are genes that predispose selfishness. Survival of the fittest, in the days of the cave man, resulted in the selection and passing of this gene from one generation to the next. Selfish behavior in social dilemmas. Self-interest motivates much behavior even when it...
Proactivity involves tasking initiative to improve current condition, as well as creating new ones rather than passively accepting current company conditions. As an aside it is noteworthy that proactivity correlates positively with job promotions. Moreover, research has shown repeatedly that organizations whose senior managers set high goals have higher levels of annual profit and greater profit growth than those that do not.
"The universe is change; our life is what our thoughts make it." This phrase has been borrowed from that old Roman, Marcus Aurelius. We like to think that the subject of "change" is something "new" or at least too familiar to our lives today. But, as you can see, the human mind has been trying to grasp "change" for a very long time.
Psychologists are discovering what leads to an engaged employee, and how to create value for any job. The key is to find reasons why what we do in our job is meaningful to us. Doing so has multiple benefits for us. It increases our motivation, empowerment, career development, job performance, and job satisfaction; doing so also decreases our absenteeism from work as well as our stress.
A standing ovation is an audience's ultimate show of appreciation for an outstanding public performance. For Joe Pace, however an ovation hasn't always come at the end of a great speech. The Pacific Institute speaker has also received them when the opposite has happened, and the audience showed its appreciation for his graceful reaction to a public speaking disaster.
Facing the Reality of Student Motivation and Retention.
The brain operates from mental pictures. You should have a picture or a replacement picture of what a situation would look like and feel like if it was ideal or perfect. How do you want to come across? How do you picture yourself looking and acting? What do you communicate with eye contact and body language? The answers link directly to first impressions. The initial picture...
We have probably all heard the phrase "change is hard" or that "people naturally resist change." What if that line of thinking...
As Tom Peters introduces each new chapter in his sequel to In Search of Excellence, Re-imagine!, he begins by stating, "I imagine," and then proceeds to challenge us to re-think our approach to...
The Pacific Institute's curriculum is one that will endure. The principles will be as applicable 100 years from now as they are today. This is because the principles are based on two...
As human beings we are born with a brain that enables us to enjoy higher-level thinking beyond that of other mammals. We have the conscious ability to critically think, reframe assumptions, and develop problem-solving skills. We have the ability to identify and either unlearn and relearn or reinforce and fortify...